Epidemic endemic pandemic pdf

An epidemic is a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time. Nevertheless, the spread of a virus can also have important economic implications. The prefix epi comes from the greek word meaning on, at, besides, after, and en from en, meaning in. An endemic, epidemic, and a pandemic seminars in nephrology. In 2009, the world watched as the pandemic influenza a h1n1 virus circulated the globe. This level is not necessarily the desired level, which may in. Were all aware that disease is an unwell state of the body caused by an external organism, such as a bacteria or virus contagious disease, or due to genetic factors, environmental reasons etc. There is a severe shortage of ventilators, including in the us, itself. While a pandemic may be characterized as a type of epidemic, you would not say that an epidemic is a type of pandemic. Expires september 30, 2016 the 2014 reemergence of ebola virus disease evd quickly became the largest and deadliest outbreak of the disease ever recorded. Slowing the spread of pandemic disease there is no foolproof method for preventing the spread of disease during an influenza outbreak, epidemic, or pandemic. Difference between endemic and epidemic compare the. A pandemic is a type of epidemic one with greater range and coverage, an outbreak of a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects an exceptionally high proportion of the population.

The element dem in epidemic, endemic, and pandemic comes from the ancient greek word demos, which meant people or district. More recent pandemics include the hivaids pandemic and the pandemic h1n1 influenza 2009, commonly known as swine flu. Pandemic description pandemic is defined as an epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, crossing international boundaries and usually affecting a large number of people. Investigation and management of epidemicprone diseases. The term epidemic derives from a word form attributed to homers odyssey, which later took its medical meaning from the epidemics, a treatise by hippocrates. Both epidemic and endemic came into english around the beginning of the 17th century, and the words share the root greek demos, meaning population. General use clean and safe water sources provision of safe drinking water is the most important prevention measure for many diseases. None of these viral descendants, however, approaches the pathogenicity of the 1918 parent virus. Widespread endemic diseases with a stable number of infected people such as. If an epidemic covers many different countries or spreads to more than one continent, then it is very likely to be a pandemic. The viruses that cause seasonal flu are like the ones from the past few. Epidemic is an outbreak of a contagious disease that spreads rapidly and extensively and affecting many individuals simultaneously in an area or a population.

Although a vaccine is not likely to be available at first, today it is easier to produce specific vaccines more quickly than in the past. Disease epidemics have influenced world history throughout time. Thucydides description of the plague of athens is considered one of the. Another ebola epidemic, another plague epidemic or a new influenza pandemic are not mere probabilities, the threat is real.

By contrast, a plague is not an epidemiologic term but one that refers specifically to a contagious bacterial disease characterized by fever and delirium, such as. Pritish tosh adds, in epidemiologic terms, an outbreak refers to a number of cases that exceeds what would be expected. Ex in a city x there were 400 cases of cholera in 2012. Sometimes, an epidemic stays contained to a specific areabut when it extends into other countries or continents, and epidemic turns into a fullblown pandemic. A pandemic is a much larger version of an epidemic, or may cover several epidemics in a certain area. Akhiran ini dipakai untuk merujuk pada populasi atau daerah. There are three types of outbreaks an endemic, epidemic, and pandemic. This level is not necessarily the desired level, which may in fact be zero, but rather is the observed level. If the definitions of epidemic and related terms like outbreak and pandemic continue to evolve in the current direction, it is likely that citizens and policymakers will respond by greeting new public health warnings with indifference, and poten tially hostility. Rating is available when the video has been rented. Infection prevention and control of epidemic and pandemicprone acute respiratory diseases in health care who interim guidelines 3 foreword the purpose of this document is to provide infection control guidance to help prevent the transmission. Although accreditation for this cecme activity has expired, and the posttest is no longer available, you can still read the full article.

The terms endemic, outbreak, epidemic, and pandemic indicate how common a condition is at a point in time relative to how common it was at an earlier time the terms endemic, outbreak, epidemic, and pandemic are often used to describe infections, although conditions such as hypertension, cancer, violence, or even positive, beneficial behaviors can also be described the same way. Pandemic flu seasonal flu getting a flu shot or the nasal spray each year is the best way to protect yourself from seasonal flu. Learn incidence, prevalence, sporadic, endemic, epidemic, pandemic with free interactive flashcards. Plague is a zoonotic disease with severe clinical presentations caused by the bacterium yersinia. A pandemic is an epidemic that occurs over a wide area, such as multiple continents or the entire world, whereas an epidemic is an outbreak of disease that affects a disproportionately higher. In the field of public health, the words endemic, epidemic and pandemic all denote the spread of an infectious disease, but the extent of its spread differs for each. Originating in guinea, it spread to neighboring countries and others around the globe. The distinction between epidemic and endemic was first drawn by hippocrates, to distinguish between diseases that are visited upon a population epidemic from those that reside within a population endemic. Communicable diseases are usually either absent, endemic, or epidemic in a population although sporadic or imported cases can occur. An influenza pandemic is a global outbreak of a new influenza a virus.

Major epidemic and pandemic diseases mitigate risks. Protect water sources from contamination by animals and wastewater. Many emergency departments, clinics, and physician offices were filled with symptomatic patients and the worried well as public health and emergency management agencies modified. Sleep under long lasting insecticide treated nets llin in malaria endemic areas to reduce. The first and most crucial aspect of an epidemic or pandemic is, and will always remain, human suffering and the loss of lives. Pandemic vs epidemic in the current world where ebola virus is making headlines, knowing the difference between pandemic and epidemic can be of advantage. Global health jama jama network journalsjamafullarticle2726986. Before hippocrates, epidemios, epidemeo, epidamos, and other variants had meanings similar to the current definitions of indigenous or endemic. Even though epidemics can be dramatic, endemic disease is often worse for the population 51. Malaria is endemic to many parts of africa while a viral infection may take on epidemic proportions in a. Choose from 2 different sets of incidence, prevalence, sporadic. Sobat pembaca, tiga kata yang kita bahas kali ini endemic, epidemic, dan pandemic memang sering membingungkan. Manual on investigation and management of epidemic prone diseases in ethiopia 3 endemic in a population at any frequency level, provided that it occurs with predictable regularity. Principles of epidemiology lesson 1 section 11 cdc.

Chickenpox is an example of an endemic because it occurs at a high but predictable rate among children. What is the difference between a pandemic, endemic and. Whether transmitted by mosquitoes, other insects, via contact with animals or persontoperson, the only major uncertainty is when and where they. Endemic an endemic is an outbreak that occurs at a predictable rate in a particular population or area.

Pandemic refers to an epidemic that has spread over several countries or continents, usually affecting a large number of people. Containing pandemic and epidemic diseases in asia 6 measures, as well as disclosed accurate information on pandemic and epidemic diseases to its citizens. Both endemic and epidemic are diseases though endemic is a disease that is common to a particular are while epidemic is an outbreak of a disease in an area. The united states is not currently experiencing an influenza pandemic. A pandemic is the worldwide spread of a new infectious disease. A pandemic from greek, pan, all and, demos, people is an epidemic of disease that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple continents or worldwide, affecting a substantial number of people. Additional terms can be used to describe endemic diseases according to their frequency of occurrence. What is a pandemic and how is it different to an epidemic. Influenza is a good example of a commonly epidemic disease. Frustrated police admit they cant stop people packing out parks and. Endemic persistent, usual,or expected healthrelated state or event in a defined population over a given period of time pandemic epidemic affecting a large number of.

In the event of new epidemics or pandemics, additional recommendations will be forthcoming. Epidemic a disease is said to be epidemic if it occurs in a population in a place clearly more than the number of cases occurred in previous years. By contrast, a plague is not an epidemiologic term but one that refers specifically to a contagious bacterial disease characterized by fever and delirium, such as bubonic plague. The word pandemic is a greek word, with pan meaning all and demos meaning people. Kalau sobat perhatikan, ketiga kata tersebut mengandung akhiran yang sama, yaitu demic. Like an epidemic, a pandemic must be infectious and spreading rapidly. The amount of a particular disease that is usually present in a community is referred to as the baseline or endemic level of the disease. Disease outbreaks can take the endemic, epidemic, or pandemic proportions depending on. The terms endemic and epidemic were coined by hippocrates, who distinguished between diseases that were always present in a given population, and diseases which used to occur during certain periods of an year or during certain years. Disease outbreaks can take the endemic, epidemic, or pandemic proportions depending on the intensity of the pathogen, its mode of transmission, herd immunity, and prevalence and incidence of the. When an epidemic crosses over into pandemic, the biggest difference is that more governments are involved in attempting to prevent the progression of the. For example, malaria is endemic to some regions of brazil, but is not endemic to the united states. A pandemic refers to a global epidemic one that has spread over several countries or continents affecting a large number of people. Pandemic influenza occurs when an influenza virus that was not previously circulating among people and to which most people have no immunity emerges and transmits among people.

Difference between pandemic and epidemic compare the. Epidemic was preceded slightly by the nowobsolete epidemical which. If a disease or illness is endemic in a place, it is frequently found among the people. The pandemic victim toll the world over has crossed the half a million mark. It stretches over a larger area, infects more people and causes more deaths than.

An epidemic is specific to one city, region, or country, but a pandemic spreads beyond national. This general microbiology video gives a discussion of the meaning of the terms epidemic, endemic and pandemic in terms of numbers and distribution. Epidemics and pandemics can be prevented and mitigated. A pandemic is when a disease spreads across a wide geographical area and affects many people. A number of studies focusing on this aspect of the impact of epidemics and pandemics. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. A widespread endemic disease with a stable number of infected people is not a pandemic. A pandemic refers to a global epidemic one that has spread over several countries or continents affecting a. A pandemic is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region. Endemic definition and meaning collins english dictionary. Diseases for which a larger than expected number of cases occurs in a short time within a geographic region are called epidemic diseases. In addition, a look at national pandemic and epidemic response plans suggest that, among asian countries, japan has been the most effective in preparedness planning as well as specific measures.

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